Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copyby Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation.
Free recall Free recall describes the process in which a person is given a list of items to remember and then is tested by being asked to recall them in any order. Primacy effects are displayed when the person recalls items presented at the beginning of the list earlier and more often.
The recency effect is when the person recalls items presented at the end of the list earlier and more often. Researchers have used this procedure to test memory. Participants are given pairs, usually of words, A1-B1, A2-B An-Bn n is the number of pairs in a list to study. Then the experimenter gives the participant a word to cue the participant to recall the word with which it was originally paired.
The word presentation can either be visual or auditory. There are two basic experimental methods used to conduct cued recall, the study-test method and the anticipation method. In the study-test method participants study a list of word pairs presented individually.
Immediately after or after a time delay, participants are tested in the study phase of the experiment on the word pairs just previously studied. One word of each pair is presented in a random order and the participant is asked to recall the item with which it was originally paired.
The participant can be tested for either forward recall, Ai is presented as a cue for Bi, or backward recall, Bi is presented as a cue for Ai.
In the anticipation method, participants are shown Ai and are asked to anticipate the word paired with it, Bi. If the participant cannot recall the word, the answer is revealed. During an experiment using the anticipation method, the list of words is repeated until a certain percentage of Bi words are recalled.
The learning curve for cued recall increases systematically with the number of trials completed. This result has caused a debate about whether or not learning is all-or-none. One theory is that learning is incremental and that the recall of each word pair is strengthened with repetition.
Another theory suggests that learning is all-or-none, that is one learns the word pair in a single trial and memory performance is due to the average learned pairs, some of which are learned on earlier trials and some on later trials.
To examine the validity of these theories researchers have performed memory experiments. In one experiment published inexperimental psychologist Irvin Rock and colleague Walter Heimer of the University of Illinois had both a control group and an experimental group learn pairs of words.
The control group studied word pairs that were repeated until the participants learned all the word pairs. In the experimental group, the learned pairs remained in the list while unlearned pairs were substituted with recombinations of previous words.
Rock believed that associations between two items would be strengthened if learning were incremental even when pairs are not correctly recalled. His hypothesis was that the control group would have a higher correct recall probability than the experimental group.
He thought that repetition would increase the strength of the word pair until the strength reaches a threshold needed to produce an overt response. If learning were all or none, then the control group and the experimental group should learn the word pairs at the same rate.
Rock found experimentally there was little difference in learning rates between the two groups.
However, Rock's work did not settle the controversy because in his experiment he rearranged replaced word pairs that could be either easier or harder to learn than the original words in the word- digit pair.
In further experiments that addressed the question, there were mixed results. The incremental learning hypothesis is supported by the notion that awhile after Ai-Bi pairs are learned, the recall time to recall Bi decreases with continued learning trails.
Forward recall is generally assumed to be easier than backward recall, i. This is generally true for long sequences of word or letters such as the alphabet. In one view, the independent associations hypothesis, the strength of forward and backward recall are hypothesized to be independent of each other.
To confirm this hypothesis, Dr. George Wolford tested participants' forward and backward recall and found that forward and backward recall are independent of each other. The probability of correct forward recall was. E Asch from Swarthmore College and S.
M Ebenholtz's experiment, participants learned pairs of nonsense syllables by anticipation recall. After reaching a certain threshold of learning, the participants were tested by free recall to determine all pairs and single items they could remember.
These researchers found that backward association was greatly weaker than forward association. However, when the availability of forward and backward recall were basically the same, there was little difference between forward and backward recall. However associative symmetry theorists interpreted the data to mean that the results fit their hypothesis.
Another study done using cued recall found that learning occurs during test trials.INTRODUCTION. THE value of knowledge is tested by its power to purify and ennoble the life, and all earnest students desire to apply the theoretical knowledge acquired in their study of Theosophy to the evolution of their own character and to the helping of their fellow-men.
I find it ironic that the day after the day we’ve set aside to celebrate thankfulness is the biggest commercial retail day of the year. It can be easy to lose perspective, and I try my best to remember the things that I am thankful for.
“His axioms for digital preservation will guide novices and experts alike.” – Deanna Marcum “Digital preservation, unlike the one-time process for preserving print, is an ongoing, changing responsibility for those who bear the responsibility of preserving our history and cultural heritage.
Our Word of the Year choice serves as a symbol of each year’s most meaningful events and lookup trends. It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year. So, take a stroll down memory lane to remember all of our past Word of the Year selections.
The. You could try altering these powers by changing their scope in some crazy way. For example, in Read or Die!, the main character has telekinesis that applies only to paper. A. A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time.
ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence.