Prose and poetry From settlement to The first writers of English in Canada were visitors—explorers, travelersand British officers and their wives—who recorded their impressions of British North America in charts, diaries, journals, and letters.
The French language in Canada The valley of the St. Lawrence River, first explored by Jacques Cartier during his second voyage to North America inwas colonized by France during the 17th and 18th centuries. In France permanently ceded to Britain most of the territory known as Acadia but maintained its hold over New France.
With the fall of the city of Quebec inthe British gained control of New France. When the Treaty of Paris in officially confirmed British rule over New France, the predominantly Roman Catholic population of more than 60, persons spoke a language that was already a blend of several French dialectsalthough French was then not yet standardized in France itself.
Library of Congress, Rare Book Division After immigration from France virtually ceased, but the number of French-speaking inhabitants continued to increase. The remainder form a linguistic minority among predominantly English-speaking communities in other provinces.
In many cases they have established vibrant, culturally active subcommunities, most notably in the Maritime Provincesparticularly New Brunswickwhich is officially bilingual; in northern Ontario; and, to a lesser extent, in the western provinces.
Although French Canadian literature is often considered separately from Quebec literature, this article examines both. The French regime, — During the two centuries of French rule, not a page of French was printed in New France; there was no printing press in the colony until after the establishment of British control.
The substantial colonial literature written in and about New France was published in France for a European audience. The colony also possessed an abundant oral literature composed of folk songs, folktales, and legends. Considerable scholarly effort has been expended on the recovery and study of the rich heritage of oral traditions and literary works surviving from the French period.
During the first 70 years of British rule, journalism was vitally important to the French-speaking majority. The bilingual Quebec Gazette and, later, French-language newspapers such as Le Canadien and La Minerve offered the only medium of mass communication, of contact with Europe and the United States, and of political expression at home.
The first scattered indications of literature anecdotes, poems, essays, and sermons appeared in their pages, as did the verses and songs of two French immigrants, Joseph Quesnel and Joseph Mermet. Colas et Colinettefirst acted on stage inwas revived as a radio play in The literature Early literature, —60 Publication of French Canadian literature in Canada began in the s.
This literary development reflected in part the gradual organization of primary and secondary education and the increasing availability of French books and periodicals even before the resumption of commercial relations with France in More important was a growing sense of national identity, apparent in the campaigns for responsible government that preceded and followed the ill-fated rebellions against British rule in and The literary movement of Under the Act of Unionthe peripatetic parliament of Upper and Lower Canada moved in to Quebec city, along with its clerks and public servants.
Their spokesman, Henri-Raymond Casgrain, promoted a messianic view of the spiritual mission of French Canadians in North America, now that postrevolutionary France had fallen into what he perceived to be godlessness and materialism. Only a few French Romantic writers were admired and imitated.
More original works were nevertheless attempted: The society continued to exist, although intermittently, for nearly 40 years. Its members published extensively, mostly in verse; organized four large public sessions in —99; and issued two collective volumes of their writings, in and Their literary doctrine was eclecticalthough chiefly influenced by the Parnassian and Symbolist movements in France and Belgium.
The Montreal School included the first French Canadian poet who can be compared favourably with his French contemporaries.
Iegor de St-Hippolyte, Emile-Nelligan Foundation, Quebec During the first decade of the 20th century, two main literary groups emerged, the aesthetes exotistes and the regionalists.
Paradoxically, the regionalists were proposing rural and agricultural themes when Quebec society was becoming urban and industrial. Marie Calumet] and Albert Laberge La Scouine [; Bitter Bread]who portrayed country life too realistically, were censured and ostracized.
After the interruption of the war years —45French Canadian fiction became increasingly urban. She also wrote much autobiographical fiction set in rural Manitoba.
Agaguk and Ashini ; Eng. Although each employed distinctive techniques and images, all expressed their sense of solitude, alienation, frustration, or despair.Introduction to Indigenous Literary Criticism in Canada collects 26 seminal critical essays indispensable to our understanding of the rapidly growing field of Indigenous literatures.
The texts gathered in this collection, selected after extensive consultation with experts in the field, trace the development of Indigenous literatures while highlighting major trends and themes, including.
Canadian Literature - Introduction N. Ramachandran Nair Canada is the largest country in the world now with a population of around 28 million. Transcript of Introduction to Canadian Literature. Discovering Canada! The artists' response to Canada's hostility? Canadians Vast wilderness, difficult to survive Unique geography The massive evergreen forests and wildlife in the Canadian Rockies in the west The flat landforms of Alberta Prairies.
Introduction: Literature offers a strong and passionate voice for the past. The literature of the Native Canadian is a voice we, the people of Canada, can no longer ignore.
There is little to be gained by dwelling on the past. Canadian literature - Canadian literature in French: The valley of the St. Lawrence River, first explored by Jacques Cartier during his second voyage to North America in , was colonized by France during the 17th and 18th centuries.
The first French settlement was established in at Port-Royal, near present-day Annapolis Royal, . Native Canadians in Literature.
Home / Introduction: Literature offers a strong and passionate voice for the past. The literature of the Native Canadian is a voice we, the people of Canada, can no longer ignore. There is little to be gained by dwelling on the past. Nevertheless, there is much to be realized by accepting what has passed.