Anatomically modern humans essay

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Anatomically modern humans essay

AnthropologyHuman evolutionand Timeline of human evolution The genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids great apes branch of the primates. Modern humans, defined as the species Homo sapiens or specifically to the single extant subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, proceeded to colonize all the continents and larger islands, arriving in Eurasia ,—60, years ago, [19] [20] Australia around 40, years ago, the Americas around 15, years ago, and remote islands such as Hawaii, Easter IslandMadagascarand New Zealand between the years and The gibbons family Hylobatidae and orangutans genus Pongo were the first groups to split from the line leading to the humans, then gorillas genus Gorilla followed by the chimpanzees genus Pan.

The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4—8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch. Each of these species has been argued to be a bipedal ancestor of later hominins, but all such claims are contested.

It is also possible that any one of the three is an ancestor of another branch of African apes, or is an ancestor shared between hominins and other African Hominoidea apes. The question of the relation between these early fossil species and the hominin lineage is still to be resolved.

More recently, however, instone toolsperhaps predating Homo habilis, have been discovered in northwestern Kenya that have been dated to 3. During the next million years a process of encephalization began, and with the arrival of Homo erectus in the fossil record, cranial capacity had doubled.

Homo erectus were the first of the hominina to leave Africa, and these species spread through Africa, Asia, and Europe between 1. One population of H. It is believed that these species were the first to use fire and complex tools. The earliest transitional fossils between H. These descendants of African H.

The earliest fossils of anatomically modern humans are from the Middle Paleolithicaboutyears ago such as the Omo remains of Ethiopia and the fossils of Herto sometimes classified as Homo sapiens idaltu.

The most significant of these adaptations are 1. The relationship between all these changes is the subject of ongoing debate.

The earliest bipedal hominin is considered to be either Sahelanthropus [39] or Orrorinwith Ardipithecusa full bipedal, [40] coming somewhat later.

It is possible that bipedalism was favored because it freed up the hands for reaching and carrying food, because it saved energy during locomotion, because it enabled long distance running and hunting, or as a strategy for avoiding hyperthermia by reducing the surface exposed to direct sun.

However, the differences between the structure of human brains and those of other apes may be even more significant than differences in size. The reduced degree of sexual dimorphism is primarily visible in the reduction of the male canine tooth relative to other ape species except gibbons.

Another important physiological change related to sexuality in humans was the evolution of hidden estrus. Humans are the only ape in which the female is fertile year round, and in which no special signals of fertility are produced by the body such as genital swelling during estrus.

These changes taken together have been interpreted as a result of an increased emphasis on pair bonding as a possible solution to the requirement for increased parental investment due to the prolonged infancy of offspring.

Archaic human admixture with modern humansEarly human migrationsMultiregional origin of modern humansPrehistoric autopsyand Recent African origin of modern humans By the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period 50, BPfull behavioral modernityincluding languagemusic and other cultural universals had developed.

Sinceevidence for gene flow between archaic and modern humans during the period of roughlyto 30, years ago has been discovered. This includes modern human admixture in Neanderthals, Neanderthal admixture in modern humans, [53] [54] Denisova hominin admixture in Melanesians [55] as well as repeated admixture from unnamed archaic humans to Sub-Saharan African populations.

They inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40, years ago, and the Americas at least 14, years ago.Comparing Neanderthals with Modern Humans Essay Words | 6 Pages of what it is to be human, at least in the evolutionary world, we need only to compare our modern selves to our ancestors such as the Neanderthals.

Anatomically modern humans essay

The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.

Essay A virtual revolution occurred in the creation of art during the period of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe. Beginning around 40, B.C., the archaeological record shows that anatomically modern humans effectively replaced Neanderthals and remained the sole hominid inhabitants across continental Europe.

Instead, various traits we associate with anatomically modern humans probably appeared in a type of “mosaic evolution” that Neanderthals also seem to have exhibited.

Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.

Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers. In common usage, the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo—anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens..

In scientific terms, the meanings of "hominid" and "hominin" have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern schwenkreis.com previously clear boundary between humans .

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