Excerpt from an article entitled: Defending the Gangster State Posted in Originally published,in Parenti's book, Dirty Truths, lightly edited Today in the much vaunted western democracies there exists a great deal of unaccountable state power whose primary function is to maintain the existing politico-economic structure, using surveillance, infiltration, sabotage, judicial harassment, disinformation, trumped-up charges and false arrests, tax harassment, blackmail, and even violence and assassination to make the world safe for those who own it. These elements have proven themselves capable of perpetrating terrible crimes against dissidents at home and abroad. National security state agencies like the CIA, in the service of dominant economic interests, have enlisted the efforts of mobsters, drug traffickers, assassins, and torturers, systematically targeting peasant leaders, intellectuals, journalists, student leaders, clergy, labor union leaders, workers, and community activists in numerous countries.
Patron-client networks[ edit ] Patron-client networks are defined by fluid interactions. They produce crime groups that operate as smaller units within the overall network, and as such tend towards valuing significant others, familiarity of social and economic environments, or tradition.
These networks are usually composed of: They focus more on how the operations works, succeeds, sustains itself or avoids retribution, they are generally typified by: However, this model of operation has some flaws: The 'top-down' communication strategy is susceptible to interception, more so further down the hierarchy being communicated to; Maintaining written records jeopardizes the security of the organization and relies on increased security measures; Infiltration at lower levels in the hierarchy can jeopardize the entire organization a ' house of cards ' effect ; and, Death, injury, incarceration or internal power struggles dramatically heighten the insecurity of operations.
While bureaucratic operations Crime theories within american gangster business processes and strongly authoritarian hierarchies, these are based on enforcing power relationships rather than an overlying aim of protectionism, sustainability or growth.
Participation in gang-related events during adolescence perpetuate a pattern of maltreatment on their own children years later. More interventions actually lead to greater gang participation and solidarity and bonds between members.
No ethnic group is more disposed to gang involvement than another, rather it is the status of being marginalized, alienated or rejected that makes some groups more vulnerable to gang formation,    and this would also be accounted for in the effect of social exclusion,   especially in terms of recruitment and retention.
These may also be defined by age typically youth or peer group influences,  and the permanence or consistency of their criminal activity. These groups also form their own symbolic identity or public representation which are recognizable by the community at large include colors, symbols, patches, flags and tattoos.
Research has focused on whether the gangs have formal structures, clear hierarchies and leadership in comparison with adult groups, and whether they are rational in pursuit of their goals, though positions on structures, hierarchies and defined roles are conflicting.
Some studied street gangs involved in drug dealing - finding that their structure and behavior had a degree of organizational rationality. Also a specified and regular means of income i.
Padilla agreed with the two above. However some have found these to be loose rather than well-defined and lacking persistent focus, there was relatively low cohesion, few shared goals and little organizational structure. Similarly, the use of violence does not conform to the principles behind protection rackets, political intimidation and drug trafficking activities employed by those adult groups.
In many cases gang members graduate from youth gangs to highly developed OC groups, with some already in contact with such syndicates and through this we see a greater propensity for imitation.
Gangs and traditional criminal organizations cannot be universally linked Decker,  however there are clear benefits to both the adult and youth organization through their association. In terms of structure, no single crime group is archetypal, though in most cases there are well-defined patterns of vertical integration where criminal groups attempt to control the supply and demandas is the case in arms, sex and drug trafficking.
Entrepreneurial[ edit ] The entrepreneurial model looks at either the individual criminal or a smaller group of organized criminals, that capitalize off the more fluid 'group-association' of contemporary organized crime.From Theory to Praxis: Black Women, Gangs, and Critical Race Feminism Adrien K.
Wingt Christine A. Willisf t INTRODUCTION l Despite the media's portrayal, the American gang problem is not.
American Gangster is decidedly a product of demons of crime, personal vice, and institutional corruption, struggling to stem the tides of moral decay from within and without. and family both. Cut to black. It’s an infinitely more solemn and provocative ending, and hints at the kind of black American crime epic that the country, a.
Crime theories- American gangster The behavior theory claims that humans learn their behavior through experiences.
They learn how to and commit crimes because they receive favorable incentives for committing the crimes. Tony Blair: a liar and a coward War is the greatest interest bearing debt generator known to mankind War is Murder for Profit UNICEF say Iraqi children are dying EVERY MONTH - stop sanctions NOW!
To save the lives of innocent fellow countrymen Western rulers must stop military invasions, occupation and covert operations NOW! Asian gangster films are portrayed as bad movies - Gangster introduction. Gangster films in general are always told to be a bad influence since all they are mostly about is killing and assassinating.
Crime Theories Within American Gangster ; American Gangster ; Anxieties in an Urban Environment as Portrayed in “American Gangster” The.
American Gangster: The Pursuit of the American Dream 23 noviembre, · de Alejandro Calvo Schwarzwälder · en Cine. Crime has an enormous impact on popular culture, being explored by many different mediums such as books, music, cyberspace, television and, of course, films.