Characters are often referred to formally, with both their first and middle names: When characters are not referred to in the formal manner, they are often referred to by informal nicknames, which may seem to bear little resemblance to their real names: If the character is frequently called by one of many nicknames, the frequently used name is italicized. Kind, gentle, loving, and wise, Alyosha is the opposite of his coarse and vulgar father.
Oxford University Press, A forged painting, for example, will not be inauthentic in every respect: Authenticity of presentation is relevant not only to performing arts. Modern museums, for example, have been criticized for presenting old master paintings in strong lighting conditions which reveal detail, but at the same time give an overall effect that is at odds with how works would have been enjoyed in domestic spaces by their original audiences; cleaning, revarnishing, and strong illumination arguably amount to inauthentic presentation.
Religious sculptures created for altars have been said to be inauthentically displayed when presented in a bare space of a modern art gallery see Feagin First, works of art can be possess what we may call nominal authenticity, defined simply as the correct identification of the origins, authorship, or provenance of an object, ensuring, as the term implies, that an object of aesthetic experience is properly named.
This second sense of authenticity can be called expressive authenticity. The following discussion will summarize some of the problems surrounding nominal authenticity and will conclude with a general examination of expressive authenticity.
A forgery is defined as a work of art whose history of production is misrepresented by someone not necessarily the artist to an audience possibly to a potential buyer of the worknormally for financial gain.
A forging artist paints or sculpts a work in the style of a famous artist in order to market the result as having been created by the famous artist. Exact copies of existing works are seldom forged, as they will be difficult to sell to knowledgeable buyers.
The concept of forgery necessarily involves deceptive intentions on the part of the forger or the seller of the work: The line between innocent copy and overt forgery can be, as we shall see, difficult to discern. Plagiarism is a related but logically distinct kind of fraud. The most obvious cases of plagiarism have an author publishing in his own name a text that was written by someone else.
If the original has already been published, the plagiarist is at risk of being discovered, although plagiarism may be impossible to prove if the original work, or all copies of it, is hidden or destroyed.
Since publication of plagiarized work invites wide scrutiny, plagiarism is, unlike forgery, a difficult fraud to accomplish as a public act without detection. In fact, the most common acts of plagiarism occur not in public, but in the private sphere of work that students submit to their teachers.
There is nothing fraudulent about wrongly guessing the origins of an apparently old New Guinea mask or an apparently eighteenth-century Italian painting. Fraudulence is approached only when what is merely an optimistic guess is presented as well-established knowledge, or when the person making the guess uses position or authority to give it a weight exceeding what it deserves.
The line, however, that divides unwarranted optimism from fraudulence is hazy at best.
Authenticity, therefore, is a much broader issue than one of simply spotting and rooting out fakery in the arts. The will to establish the nominal authenticity of a work of art, identifying its maker and provenance — in a phrase, determining how the work came to be — comes from a general desire to understand a work of art according to its original canon of criticism: How was it related to the cultural context of its creation?St.
John's College is a private liberal arts college with dual campuses in Annapolis, Maryland, and Santa Fe, New Mexico, which are ranked separately by U.S.
News & World Report within the top National Liberal Arts Colleges. It is known for its distinctive curriculum centered on reading and discussing the Great Books of Western Civilization.
St. John's has no religious affiliation. This forgery, Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus, was completed in To produce it, van Meegeren studied seventeenth-century pigment formulas, incorporated volatile flower oils in his pigments to create hardness, and used badger-hair brushes (a single modern bristle embedded in the paint would give him away) on canvas recycled from an .
General Information. The West Valley College Philosophy department offers an unusually large number of courses in Philosophy and introductory Religious Studies.. One major aim of the Philosophy program is to encourage clarity and rigor of thought and expression.
Quiz Questions on Classic Books, Thrillers, World Writers, Nobel Laureates, Poets and Poems, and more. St. John's College is a private liberal arts college with dual campuses in Annapolis, Maryland, and Santa Fe, New Mexico, which are ranked separately by U.S.
News & World Report within the top National Liberal Arts Colleges. It is known for its distinctive curriculum centered on reading and discussing the Great Books of Western . A research paper is the most demanding assignment you can get. But for us, research is one of the most beloved types of activities and we can do it within any discipline.