England and Wales[ edit ] Early history to [ edit ] The introduction of police forces on a national scale in England and Wales began with the Municipal Corporations Actwhich required each borough to establish a " watch committee " and thus appoint constables to "preserve the peace". Before the advent of police authorities, the regulatory bodies for police forces confined to a single borough were these watch committees, whilst those for counties from had been "standing joint committees" after some control passed to the elected county council ; the joint committee also had magistrates.
At the same time, the Greek authorities — with assistance from strategic foreign partners like Israel — are taking measures to combat the crime wave and reduce the power of criminal groups.
Still, we expect the crime rate to increase in and into The following report, which draws in part on exclusive information gathered by Balkanalysis.
A Healthy Market for Illegal Weapons Trafficking Organized crime syndicates in Greece have been expanding steadily over the past decade. Greek authorities estimate that some 1. Weapons including pistols and ammunition are being imported by crime groups from Albania and the ex-Yugoslavia and ex-Soviet Union states, through a variety of illegal arms trafficking channels.
The Greek police estimate that currently some gangs involved in trafficking weapons operate in the country. The main points of entry for them have been identified as the Greek-Albanian borders and the south coast of Crete for weapons imported from the Middle East by ship.
The Security Directory of Police in the Attica region which includes Athens has issued over the years around 5, licenses for weapons for personal protection to citizens such as politicians, businesspeople, journalists and others who have proved their susceptibility to armed attack.
All in all, only 10, pistols and revolvers are licences and are accounted for. On the other hand, in the Attica prefecture alone, it is calculated thatarms are being held by citizens.
The people trafficking weapons in Athens are mostly also involved in the drugs trade, racketeering and armed robberies. The black market is a very good source of a secondary income on top of their primal illegal activities. The weapons being sold are divided into two major categories: The first category includes weapons that have not been used in any previous criminal act, while the second category comprises weapons that have passed through several hands; thus, ownership of the latter becomes a risky proposition, as police may wrongly identify this purchaser with a crime, if the gun is associated with earlier robberies, homicides or other gun crimes of which the purchaser would not be aware.
On the black market in Greece, weapons prices vary significantly. For example, a Czech CZ pistol costs from a 1, euros, while an Austrian Glock 17 goes for up to 2. The equally famous Italian Berretta currently sells for aroundEuros. Lesser value is registered for a Russian Tokarev just euros and a Magnum euros.
The black market for weapons exists in many areas in Athens, such as in the central Omonoia Square, and the Liosia region in the north-eastern outskirts of the city. Police note that the drugs trade and arms trafficking go hand in hand, and there have been numerous cases of barter exchange in criminal groups that sell heroin or cocaine for arms.
Robbery and other Violent Crimes on the Increase In mid, as the economy declined, a crime wave erupted in Greece. At that time, an estimated burglaries were committed on a daily basis throughout the country, along with 14 armed robberies, 70 auto thefts and one homicide.
In the same year, a classified police report was leaked to the press that revealed a These events of represented by far the largest spike in criminal rates that Greece has ever seen. And the situation would only grow worse. In the last week of March alone, armed robberies were committed in Athens.
To provide a background example illustrating the contrast, a mere 80 robberies per annum were being registered in the whole of Greece back in Beyond Athens, the past two-and-a-half years have also seen a dramatic increase in crime in the central Greece region of Thessaly.
Organized Crime in Greece: A Regional Nexus The rapid growth of criminality in Greece, which is linked to the dramatic increase in illegal immigration and economic turbulence, also has a vital relation to the existence of powerful criminal groups in the Balkans.
Another issue is the existence of criminal networks in the wider Southeastern European region. A US State Department International Strategy for Narcotics Control report, released in Marchattested that Balkan countries remain major transit points for Afghan heroin, while the war against traffickers is hampered by corruption and weak state institutions.
To a lesser extent, Romania and Montenegro are also considered as staging posts for traffickers. Apart from being an important transit country for heroin and cocaine Bulgaria is, according to the report, also a producer of illicit narcotics. With its important geographic position on several Balkan transit routes, Bulgaria is vulnerable to illegal flows of drugs, people, contraband goods and money.
For its part, Interpol is quite specific in identifying the real importance of the Balkans in the present day European narcotics market. According to the research of that organization, two primary routes are used to smuggle heroin: The anchor point for the Balkan Route is Turkey, which remains a major staging area and transportation route for heroin destined for European markets.
This whole situation has direct political repercussions as well. Since the Greek electorate blames the politicians for their perceived inability to deal with the rise in crime, this in turn is directly related to the absence of a coherent policy in deterring the flow of illegal immigration in the country, and thus of reducing the operations of transnational crime syndicates.Police Development and Operation Trends.
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