Genetics is a part of biotechnology that manipulates biological organisms to make products that benefit humankind. Biotechnology is essential in our life, but there are some concerns regarding its safety. Although, biotechnology may pose some danger it is proving to be very beneficial to humankind. The first applications of biotechnology occurred approximately around BC.
Drug Interactions Ergot-Containing Drugs Ergot-containing drugs have been reported to cause prolonged vasospastic reactions. Because these effects may be additive, use of ergotamine-containing or ergot-type medications like dihydroergotamine or methysergide and Imitrex Injection within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated.
In developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits, oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant animals was associated with embryolethality, fetal abnormalities, and pup mortality.
When administered by the intravenous route to pregnant rabbits, sumatriptan was embryolethal see Data.
The reported rate of major birth defects among deliveries to women with migraine ranged from 2. Several studies have suggested that women with migraine may be at increased risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy.
The Registry documented outcomes of infants and fetuses exposed to sumatriptan during pregnancy with earliest exposure during the first trimester, 78 during the second trimester, 16 during the third trimester, and 4 unknown.
The occurrence of major birth defects excluding fetal deaths and induced abortions without reported defects and all spontaneous Shoud biotechnology be used to prolong losses during first-trimester exposure to sumatriptan was 4.
The number of exposed pregnancy outcomes accumulated during the registry was insufficient to support definitive conclusions about overall malformation risk or for making comparisons of the frequencies of specific birth defects.
Of the 20 infants with reported birth defects after exposure to sumatriptan in the first trimester, 4 infants had ventricular septal defects, including one infant who was exposed to both sumatriptan and naratriptan, and 3 infants had pyloric stenosis.
No other birth defect was reported for more than 2 infants in this group. In a study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, live births to women who reported using triptans or ergots during pregnancy were compared with those of women who did not.
Of the 2, births with first-trimester exposure to sumatriptan, infants were born with malformations relative risk 0.
A study using linked data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to the Norwegian Prescription Database compared pregnancy outcomes in women who redeemed prescriptions for triptans during pregnancy, as well as a migraine disease comparison group who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan before pregnancy only, compared with a population control group.
Of the women who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan during the first trimester, 15 had infants with major congenital malformations OR 1.
Additional smaller observational studies evaluating use of sumatriptan during pregnancy have not suggested an increased risk of teratogenicity.
Oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of fetal blood vessel cervicothoracic and umbilical abnormalities. Oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased incidences of embryolethality and fetal cervicothoracic vascular and skeletal abnormalities.
Intravenous administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of embryolethality.
The highest oral and intravenous no-effect doses for developmental toxicity in rabbits were 15 and 0. Oral administration of sumatriptan to rats prior to and throughout gestation resulted in embryofetal toxicity decreased body weight, decreased ossification, increased incidence of skeletal abnormalities.
In offspring of pregnant rats treated orally with sumatriptan during organogenesis, there was a decrease in pup survival. Oral treatment of pregnant rats with sumatriptan during the latter part of gestation and throughout lactation resulted in a decrease in pup survival.
Lactation Risk Summary Sumatriptan is excreted in human milk following subcutaneous administration see Data. There are no data on the effects of sumatriptan on the breastfed infant or the effects of sumatriptan on milk production. Clinical Considerations Infant exposure to sumatriptan can be minimized by avoiding breastfeeding for 12 hours after treatment with Imitrex Injection.
Data Following subcutaneous administration of a 6-mg dose of Imitrex Injection in 5 lactating volunteers, sumatriptan was present in milk. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Imitrex Injection is not recommended for use in patients younger than 18 years of age.
The trials did not establish the efficacy of IMITREX nasal spray compared with placebo in the treatment of migraine in pediatric patients. Adverse reactions observed in these clinical trials were similar in nature to those reported in clinical trials in adults.
Five controlled clinical trials 2 single-attack trials, 3 multiple-attack trials evaluating oral IMITREX 25 to mg in pediatric patients aged 12 to 17 years enrolled a total of pediatric migraineurs.
These reports include reactions similar in nature to those reported rarely in adults, including stroke, visual loss, and death. A myocardial infarction has been reported in a year-old male following the use of oral IMITREX; clinical signs occurred within 1 day of drug administration.
Clinical data to determine the frequency of serious adverse reactions in pediatric patients who might receive subcutaneous, oral, or intranasal IMITREX are not presently available.
Geriatric Use Clinical trials of Imitrex Injection did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
A cardiovascular evaluation is recommended for geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors e. Overdosage Coronary vasospasm was observed after intravenous administration of Imitrex Injection [see Contraindications 4 ].
Overdoses would be expected from animal data dogs at 0. The elimination half-life of sumatriptan is about 2 hours [see Clinical Pharmacology It is unknown what effect hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis has on the serum concentrations of sumatriptan.Shoud Biotechnology Be Used To Prolong.
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Biotechnology companies, national and international organizations, including the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), and numerous academics (e.g., Ruttan ) have continued to argue for the need to increase agricultural productivity so that sufficient food supplies exist to meet the demand forthcoming from a swelling world population.
Shoud Biotechnology Be Used To Prolong. Categories. Free Essays; Tags. First of all, even though lifespan can be prolonged by biotechnology and advanced medical methods, technology can never keep people young and energetic.
There is an ancient saying in China: Life’s width is more significant than its length. High-tech cannot make lives. Biotechnology is widely used in pharmacy to create more efficient and less expensive drugs.
Recombinant DNA technology is used for production of specific enzymes, which enhance the rate of production of particular range of antibodies in the organism (Hanson 67). Shoud Biotechnology Be Used To Prolong - Essay Example Nowadays, human beings are confused about whether developing biotechnology and medical science can help people prolong life expectancy.
Concentrating on new medicines’ research and high-technology development, scientists and doctors believe that longer life expectancy is feasible.
Opportunities For Biotechnology In Italy Biology Essay. The life scientific disciplines present chances for developing human public assistance activities - Opportunities For Biotechnology In Italy Biology Essay introduction.
Enhanced by inputs from genomic research, biotechnology is a cardinal driver for development in all states.