We focus our discussion on discrimination against disadvantaged racial minorities. Our definition encompasses both individual behaviors and institutional practices.
Race historical definitions During the Age of Enlightenment an era from the s to the sconcepts of monogenism and polygenism became popular, though they would only be systematized epistemologically during the 19th century. Monogenism contends that all races have a single origin, while polygenism is the idea that each race has a separate origin.
Until the 18th century, the words "race" and "species" were interchangeable. Henri de Boulainvilliers An early scientist who studied race was Robert Boyle —an Anglo-Irish natural philosopherchemistphysicistand inventor. Boyle believed in what today is called 'monogenism', that is, that all races, no matter how diverse, came from the same source, Adam and Eve.
He studied reported stories of parents' giving birth to different coloured albinosso he concluded that Adam and Eve were originally white and that whites could give birth to different coloured races.
Theories of Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton about color and light via optical dispersion in physics were also extended by Robert Boyle into discourses of polygenesis speculating that maybe these differences were due to "seminal impressions".
However, Boyle's writings mention that at his time, for "European Eyes", beauty was not measured so much in colourbut in "stature, comely symmetry of the parts of the body, and good features in the face".
The Frankish aristocracy dominated the Gauls by innate right of conquest. In his time, Henri de Boulainvilliersa believer in the "right of conquest", did not understand "race" as biologically immutable, but as a contemporary racist cultural construct.
His theoretic racialism was distinct from the biologic facts manipulated in 19th-century scientific racism. In his book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.
In Systema Naturaehe labeled five  " varieties "   of human species. Each one was described as possessing the following physiognomic characteristics "varying by culture and place": The sub-species included the "four-footed, mute, hairy" Homo feralis Feral man ; the animal-reared Juvenis lupinus hessensis Hessian wolf boythe Juvenis hannoveranus Hannoverian boythe Puella campanica Wild-girl of Champagneand the agile, but faint-hearted Homo monstrosus Monstrous man: In Amoenitates academicaeLinnaeus presented the mythologic Homo anthropomorpha Anthropomorphic manhumanoid creatures, such as the troglodytethe satyrthe hydraand the phoenixincorrectly identified as simian creatures.
On the one hand, the harshest critics say that the classification not only was ethnocentric but seemed to be based upon skin-color. On the other hand, Quintyn points out that some authors believe the classification was based upon geographical distribution, being cartographically based, and not hierarchical.
KennedyLinneus certainly considered his own culture better, but his motives for classification of human varieties were not race-centered. Thus, regarding this topic, they consider Linnaeus view as merely " eurocentric ", arguing that Linnaeus never called for racist action, and did not use the word "race", which was only introduced later "by his French opponent Buffon ".
Rice agrees that Linnaeus' classification was not meant to "imply a hierarchy of humanness or superiority";  although modern critics see that his classification was obviously stereotypedand erroneous for having included anthropologicalnon-biological features such as customs or traditions.
Freud's concepts have become a part of our psychological vocabulary: unconscious thoughts and feelings, conflict, the meaning of dreams, the sensuality of childhood. Race, Racism, and Discrimination: Bridging Problems, Methods, and Theory in Social Psychological Research* LAWRENCE D. BOBO CYBELLE FOX Harvard University Scholars spanning the social sciences and humanities wrestle with the complex and concepts concern the meanings of social. Aversive racism is a form of implicit racism in which a person's unconscious negative evaluations of racial or ethnic minorities are realized by a persistent avoidance of .
John Hunter John Hunter —a Scottish surgeonsaid that originally the Negroid race was white at birth. He thought that over time because of the sun, the people turned dark skinned, or "black".The Critical Race Theory movement can be seen as a group of interdisciplinary scholars and activists interested in studying and changing the relationship between race, racism and power.
 This is crucial to understand in order to fully realize the goals of CRS in SPA. Freud's concepts have become a part of our psychological vocabulary: unconscious thoughts and feelings, conflict, the meaning of dreams, the sensuality of childhood.
New racism is the idea that the differences between ethnic groups are based on culture and religion, rather than blood and biology. It’s difficult to determine a definitive answer to explain racism as the subject is very complex, however Hollinsworth has written a valuable and comprehensive insight into the concepts, theories and approaches to racism, which has made the subject easier to understand.
Hollinsworth, D () Racism: concepts, theories and approaches, Race and Racism in Australia, 2nd edition, Social Science Press, Katoomba, NSW.
In this reading, Hollinsworth provides a very detailed analysis of the concept of racism. To discuss the potential reasons for racism, an examination of the social psychological theories will be useful.
The main theory relevant in the study of racism is the Social Identity theory. The theory of evolution is a naturalistic theory of the history of life on earth (this refers to the theory of evolution which employs methodological naturalism and is taught in schools and universities).
Merriam-Webster's dictionary gives the following definition of evolution: "a theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the.